Lab 1 PreLab

CHEMISTRY is defined as the study of matter and the energy associated with physical and chemical change.

MATTER is anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE.  Changes in matter can be either physical or chemical.  PHYSICAL CHANGES occur in the appearance or phase of the material but does not involves changes in the substance itself. The melting of ice to liquid form is a physical change yet the substance is still H2O, whether it is called ice (solid) or water (liquid).  CHEMICAL CHANGES will result in a new substance being formed. The combustion of gasoline is a chemical change that transforms the gasoline/oxygen mixture into a mixture of carbon dioxide, water and other gases. Energy is closely associated with chemical changes.

This laboratory experiment will focus on student OBSERVATIONS, at the macroscopic level, of “changes” detected during dissolving processes and during reaction processes. These observations may include:  the formation of a solid (called a precipitate), the formation of a gas (via bubbles), a change in color or a change in energy (known as heat).

OBSERVATIONS OF COMMON PHYSICAL CHANGES:

Any Phase Change:

Change Name of Change
Solid to Liquid Melting, Fusion
Liquid to Gas Boiling, Evaporation
Solid to Gas Sublimation
Gas to Solid Deposition
Gas to Liquid Condensation, Liquefaction
Liquid to Solid Freezing, Solidification

Grinding, Breaking, Cutting, Bending, Dissolving, Filtering

OBSERVATIONS OF COMMON CHEMICAL CHANGES:

Burning, Decomposing (Oxidizing)

Formation of a Solid

Formation of a Gas

Color Change

Change in Energy (Heat)

The laboratory objectives for the experiment relating to Matter and Energy  are:

  1. Observing physical properties of substances.
  2. Observe and identify physical and chemical changes from combining solids and liquids.
  3. Measure temperature changes during a procedure to determine if a procedure is exothermic or endothermic.

This experiment will require the use of the following glassware/hardware:

  1. Lap top computer
  2. Test tubes
  3. Test tube rack
  4. Misc. small beakers
  5. Erlenmeyer flask
  6. Spatula
  7. Stirring rod
  8. Thermometer
  9. Balloon
  10. Disposable pipets
  11. Funnel
  12. Goggles

This experiment will use the following chemicals:

  1. Citric acid
  2. Bubble solution
  3. Sugar
  4. Salt
  5. Hydrochloric acid
  6. Glue
  7. Liquid starch
  8. Baking soda
  9. Vinegar
  10. Baking powder
  11. Alka-Seltzer
  12. Sodium polyacrylate
  13. Corn starch
  14. Distilled water
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